The most unusual dead languages

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Human civilization is inconceivable without information exchange. At first they were just pictures on the walls of caves, but then numerous languages ​​were formed.

Throughout history, peoples left and new ones appeared, circumstances changed. The most unusual dead languages ​​will be discussed below.

Shuadit. This dialect, scientifically called Provençal Jewish, has many other names (Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, or Chouadit). Historians find it difficult to say exactly when Shuadite appeared. For a long time in France, religious freedom was in great doubt. This caused some believers to be discriminated against and rally, forming separate small settlements. This is exactly what happened to the Jews expelled from southern France in 1498. Only in the county of Comte-Venessene, which was under the control of the Pope, Jews were allowed to live legally. A separate group used their own language - Shuadite. It is built on the basis of Hebrew and Aramaic, and not on the basis of Provencal, as it might seem. After the French Revolution, Jews were allowed to legally live throughout the country, giving them all rights. As a result, the communities quickly disbanded, and the Shuadite speakers simply left. As a result, the language began to die quickly. The last known Shuadite speaker died in 1977.

Azeri. Based on the name, it is already clear that this language is related to Asia. Azeri was widespread in the territory of modern Azerbaijan. This language was once spoken by an ancient local people, but since the 11th century the number of speakers began to decline. Scientists suggest that Azeri was not even a single language, but a whole group of dialects of the peoples living here. The new Turkish-Azerbaijani language began to gain ground, but until Tabriz came under the rule of Persia, the Azeri were widely used. When the region became subordinate to the Persians, the government moved to Tehran, which led to the loss of the language of its dominant significance. Some scholars still suggest that the modern Azeri variety can be found in some villages of southern Azerbaijan. Although according to the official theory, the language became extinct in the 17th century.

Saterlandian Frisian language. For many centuries, Frisian has competed with Germanic in terms of prevalence. As a result, this struggle was lost, the Frisian dialect gradually disappeared from official use. And this language was born back in the 1100s. The change in church boundaries came as a strong blow to him. As a result, German-speaking Catholics were able to create families with Frisian-speaking Protestants. This enabled the Germanic language to rapidly progress and spread. So he was able to quickly take the place of the old Frisian language, practically making it dead. Today there are only a couple of thousand speakers of this language, they live in the German city of Saterland, in Lower Saxony. At the same time, the language has no official status, it is simply used in everyday life by a few adherents.

Martha's Vineyard Sign Language. The name of this island literally translates as “Martha's vineyard”. For almost two centuries, almost all of the people inhabiting it suffered from deafness. The reason for this phenomenon was incest - on the island, marriages between close relatives have become commonplace. To adapt to such difficult living conditions, people here invented their own Vineyard language, which was based on gestures. By the end of the 19th century, a successful system even got out of the island itself, beginning to crowd out American sign language. Only about a hundred years ago, deafness among the islanders began to occur less and less often. Obviously, the residents realized that consanguineous marriages are harmful. Or maybe more inhabitants from the mainland appeared on the island, who diluted the spoiled gene pool. With the decrease in the number of deaf people, sign language has become less relevant. By 1980, only a small handful of people were using it.

New language from Bernard Shaw. The famous English playwright Bernard Shaw went down in history not only as a writer, but also as an ardent supporter of changing the English writing. The writer did his best to introduce a phonetic alphabet of forty letters he created himself. Even after his death, Shaw fought to change the language - the will mentioned an amount of 10 thousand pounds for someone who can introduce the new system into everyday life and make it popular. One of the fans of Bernard Shaw's creativity even decided to publish a book based on the new alphabet. This work was even published, but it did not become successful. Those who read Bernard Shaw have become accustomed to his language, afraid to buy a publication in an incomprehensible dialect. In addition, before reading, the language still had to be understood and mastered. As a result, the only book never managed to change the English language. However, for the sake of honesty, it should be noted that the alphabet invented by Bernard Shaw was still used in a number of schools as an experiment. However, this program was considered unsuccessful. Only some teachers noted that the new system has positive aspects, while others felt that such an innovation would only confuse students.

Solresol. This language appeared in France in the 19th century. Its unusualness lies in the fact that it is musical. The system was able to transmit information not only through oral speech and writing, but also through gestures, painting, singing and even flags. A new language was intended for deaf French children. However, in practice, the language has been in demand for less than a hundred years. At the end of the 19th century, an unusual linguistic tool was considered ineffective, and children began to be taught using conventional sign language. After Solresol was no longer needed even by the deaf, it gradually disappeared from everyday life.

English by Benjamin Franklin. In the 18th century, relations between the English colonies in North America and the metropolis became very complicated. The settlers wanted freedom and independence. At the same time, the speech even concerned the alphabet. To feel completely independent from Great Britain, the famous statesman Benjamin Franklin decided to create a new alphabet. He came up with the idea of ​​removing letters such as c, j, q, w, x, and y from the traditional. They seemed superfluous to Franklin. But instead of them, it was supposed to place combinations of two vowels, for example, ch, which conveys the sound "ch". The new idea was received with curiosity, and several schools even tried to implement the new system. The Revolution that broke out in the country prevented to evaluate the results. The country was simply not up to the reforms in the language. Over time, the new Franklin alphabet was lost and the project was abandoned. Humanity, however, learned about its existence in general only after a century.

Simplified Carnegie spelling. Reforming the native language with the aim of improving it worried many minds. In 1906, a major American-Scottish industrialist, Andrew Carnegie, decided to introduce a simplified spelling system for the English language. President Theodore Roosevelt himself expressed support for him in this. Like other reformers, Carnegie thought that English was rather difficult and needed simplification. For example, it was supposed to change some words. So, "kissed" and "bureau" should have turned into laconic "kist" and "buro". The reform also affected words with a combination of two vowels. For example, "check" should have been replaced by a much simpler "check". The idea was promoted so strongly that it was accepted even in some schools. But over time, the new spelling caused many complaints. The case even reached the Supreme Court, which finally decided that Carnegie's plans for language changes were not destined to come true. Since 1920, the system has not been officially used. However, its echoes can be found in everyday English today. For example, the dropping of the letter "u" is marked, except for the spelling of the words "color" and "parlor".

Deseret. After the expulsion of the Mormons, they are also representatives of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, from Ohio, Illinois and New York, these believers went to Utah. After the new territories were settled, the believers decided to create a whole Order with their own laws. Naturally, there was a need for a new writing system. Such a system was created, it was called Deseret. The new letters have become a replacement for the familiar Latin alphabet. It was assumed that with the help of this language it would be possible to express any other language with the same symbols. The novelty was quickly introduced - Deseret began to be studied in schools, books were published on it. Even in official documents and coins, new symbols appeared. For better or worse, the system collapsed overnight for a very trivial reason - a lack of money. It turned out that providing each Mormon with new books on Deseret would have required all the funds available to the community. Reprinting literature would have required over a million dollars. The leadership of the Church decided not to risk with the new language, abandoning it in favor of traditional English.

Tamboran. This language has been in use among the people of South Indonesia for over a thousand years. The language lost its function literally overnight. In 1815, the eruption of the Tambor volcano took place, it became the largest in the history of mankind. The raging element destroyed almost the entire local population. More than 92 thousand people were officially killed. Together with them, the Tamboran language also disappeared into oblivion. Even Europeans suffered from the eruption, who had to survive the consequences of a volcanic winter. The year 1816 in Europe passed practically without a summer, a poor harvest led to hunger. Grain prices have skyrocketed 10 times. And the language itself did not become dead gradually, but literally immediately, due to a natural cataclysm.

Watch the video: Rare Languages: The Least Spoken Languages of the World

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