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There are many success stories in the history of business. However, the products are not always finished; consumers, for one reason or another, may simply not accept them.
As a result, some high-profile projects turned out to be a failure, even if there were large manufacturers and serious funds behind them. Today businessmen would like no one to remember their mistakes, but there is nothing better than learning from the mistakes of others.
Cosmopolitan yogurt. The famous magazine is published in more than 100 countries of the world and is read in 36 languages. It has 58 more international applications. It is not surprising that the Cosmopolitan brand is considered one of the most dynamically developing in the world. However, this story with the release of yoghurt showed that everyone should do their own thing. For the famous magazine brand, the main thing is still printing, not food. In 1999, low-fat yoghurt hit the shelves. The experiment failed miserably. Only a year and a half has passed since the announcement of the start of sales, and Cosmopolitan yogurt has completely disappeared from the store shelves. Despite the fact that the product was hailed as exquisite and sublime, it is unreasonably expensive. All the time selling from the pages of its magazine, the manufacturer tried to convince the reader that this yogurt is as sexy as the publication itself. The basis for the release of such a product was a study that showed that 65% of British people use similar curd products in their bedroom. Having failed in this area, the brand tried itself in the production of bedding. With Sex and the City, the brand has gained the second market share in UK bed sheets and pillows.
BIC underwear line. We know the BIC brand for selling simple disposable products. People are happy to buy razors, lighters and ballpoint pens with their favorite logo. Low price coupled with good quality. The owners of the brand decided it was time to conquer new markets. This is how white underwear appeared with the image of a man with a head in the form of a globe. It was assumed that women would gladly use the products of their favorite company. However, in reality, everything turned out to be more complicated. The fact is that the main BIC products were made of plastic, they were sold in the same store, being disposable. But underwear required the use of new technologies and new markets. The women couldn't understand why they needed to buy panties from the same manufacturer that produces ballpoint pens. This failure was a lesson - you need to use the available resources and not rely mindlessly on the magic power of the brand.
Colgate breakfast cereals. The consumer perception of the bulk of Colgate products is that they should not be swallowed. Probably, the company decided to please those who nevertheless ignore the warnings. This is how a whole line of new food products from Colgate entered the market. Many found this expansion of the product line rather strange. The company decided that the morning should start with Colgate toothpaste and continue with a breakfast cereal from the same manufacturer. True, it quickly turned out that the food with the manufacturer's logo did not seem appetizing to consumers. Colgate food products never left the American market. The company itself shifted its focus to bathroom soap. It should be noted that the attempt to master new, seemingly "adjacent" markets, had a negative impact on the company's income.
Harley Davidson toilet water. The Harley Davidson brand has a very loyal following. But even they didn't understand their favorite motorcycle brand when it came up with its own version of eau de toilette. After all, a real man on a roaring mechanized device is poorly associated with a fine perfume. T-shirts and lighters - all right, but the fans did not accept the eau de toilette. Probably, people associated these smells with motorcycle aromas. Hell's Angels motorcycle club member Sonny Barger wrote that Harley Davidson's own motorcycle image is very masculine. Many motorcyclists even get tattoos of their favorite bikes. Unsurprisingly, the manufacturer has created a chain of stores selling branded socks, T-shirts, lighters, and jewelry. But the perfume and aftershave balm caused bewilderment. The manufacturer fell into a typical market trap - the more products, the more sales. In the early 1990s, the project was scrapped, but Harley Davidson learned no lessons. Wine coolers and children's clothing with the logo of the motorcycle brand appeared on the market. And again, the bikers weren't thrilled. Joe Rice, responsible for corporate communications for the brand, said that for many years the company tried different approaches in merchandising, a recognizable name appeared on products that were poorly advertised and sold. Today Harley Davidson is much more picky about who to work with and how to expand its brand.
Mountain bikes Smith & Wesson. Harley Davidson's mistake has been repeated in an even wilder form by the famous firearms manufacturer. Marketing research of the company showed that it is valued not just as a company that produces pistols and rifles, but in general as a “manufacturer” of products. In 1997, Smith & Wesson opened a line of mountain bikes for the needs of law enforcement, intelligence agencies and ambulances. And in 2002, bicycles were offered to the general public. However, buyers did not see a connection between a quality gun and a bike, except that both were made of metal. Although the special services liked such a product, it was removed from the wide sale.
RG Reynolds smokeless cigarettes. In 1988, the society began a serious fight against smoking. It turned out that even a passive stay in smoky rooms is dangerous for humans. At this point, RG Reynolds, which owns brands such as Camel, More, Winston and Salem, launched Premier smokeless cigarettes. However, the absence of smoke was not easy - the cigarettes had an unpleasant taste, similar to coal, which scared away smokers. The cigarette worked by heating and aerosolizing a special tobacco-flavored additive. It was believed that the smoker himself would reduce the risk of cancer. The development of such a product took several years and cost the company about a billion dollars. Also, the cigarette, although it looked like an ordinary one, was much more difficult to light. The manufacturer's research showed that a smoker needed at least 2-3 packs to get used to the taste of new cigarettes. In fact, one was enough for a person. Premier cigarettes were discontinued in 1989, less than a year after entering the market. As a result, the product turned out to be a failure, the good idea literally did not like it.
Xerox computer systems. The very phrase "to make a photocopier" causes outrage among educated people. After all, "Xerox" is the name of a brand closely attached to making paper copies. The company was quickly able to earn popularity and millions with its copiers. In the late 1960s, Xerox Data Systems was making a billion dollars each year and preparing to conquer new markets. An attempt to create his own computer resulted in only a loss of $ 85 million. Then Xerox made the next risky and, as it turned out, a mistake step - the ancestor of the modern fax Telecopier was released. However, consumers flatly refused to perceive the company as anything other than just a copier manufacturer. This series of mistakes forced the company to restrain its ardor for a while, but in advertising campaigns next to the Xerox logo there was an inscription: "These are not only copying systems." And in the mid-1980s, in the wake of the computer boom, the company introduced its own personal computer, the "information processor". However, the product faced the same problems that XTEN and Ethernet office network products will face in the future. They never beat IBM and its Satellite Business. In the end, the company gave up all attempts to create its own computer and its own network.
Internet TV from Microsoft. At the very beginning of the boom on the Internet, the famous company Microsoft invited users to go online using their television receivers. A device was developed that connected to the TV and made it possible to surf the Internet. At first, such a prospect of simple access to the Web interested those people who are alien to high technologies. However, these users also caused the collapse of the project. They did not bring new income, but they constantly demanded improvements and new functions. As a result, the project stopped growing at around a million subscribers and was actually buried. Today, with the advent of SMART technology and miniaturization of computers, there is no longer a need for WebTV.
Life Savers drinks. This story began in 1912. Then the company Clarence Crane, which produces chocolate, proposed to start producing candies under the Life savers brand. The name just screamed that the lollipops would preserve and prolong life. Since then, these candies have been ranked # 1 in their non-chocolates category. But the new project of the manufacturing company, the Clarence Crane soft drink, did not meet with success. This despite the fact that preliminary marketing research predicted good sales. Consumers were later told that the great popularity of the Life savers brand and its close relationship with sweets led to the fact that when consuming the drink, it felt like drinking candy essence. For a soft drink, this comparison clearly did not go well.
Clairol yoghurt shampoo. In 1979, sales of the shampoo with the eloquent name "Touch of Yogurt" failed for a simple reason - no one wanted to wash their hair with this dairy product! However, since then consumer preferences have changed somewhat. It got to the point that some tried to use the shampoo just like yogurt - to drink it! As a result, some consumers received health disorders, and the manufacturer himself received multimillion-dollar lawsuits.
Mineral water Rocky mountain spring water from Coors. What do people want to get from a beer brand? Certainly not mineral water. Only the most obvious fans of the brand will like such a soft drink. Although the spring water from the Rocky Mountains was used to brew beer, the pure product itself failed to market. Apparently, the consumer appreciates it exclusively in conjunction with alcohol.
Cocaine energy drink. In our turbulent times, it is impossible without recharging. Energy drinks are in fashion. For example, Cocaine was initially positioned as a powerful means of recharging vitality. And this is not surprising, because the drink contained 3.5 times more caffeine than the classic Red Bull. However, in 2007, sales of Cocaine were stopped, and the product itself was withdrawn from retail chains. US government regulators have come to the conclusion that the manufacturer is positioning its product as a legal alternative to conventional drugs. Today Cocaine fans can still find this powerful energy drink in European online stores, as well as in some American small shops.
Early magic Ken. Since the beginning of the sale of Barbie, she has received many additions and improvements. However, among the many reincarnations of a friend, dolls are popular, this one was the most unsuccessful. This Ken was nicknamed Gay Ken for his overly frivolous appearance and unnaturally blonde hair. Parents expressed bewilderment in the ultra-trendy way of Barbie's boyfriend. Is it any surprise after this that the company simply recalled the controversial doll from the stores?
PDA Apple Newton. Today this name of the company is strongly associated with success, but this was not always the case. In 1993, Apple released its own version of the Newton Pocket PC. However, this product quickly fell through. It was accompanied by a bad information background, the device itself was not easy, and the price of $ 700 scared off buyers. For 6 years, Apple has been releasing a pocket computer that, in fact, did not fit into your pocket. But we can safely say that Apple predicted the emergence of the tablet computer market with its Newton.
DeLorean DMC-12. This car remains a classic and a fan favorite, despite the unenviable fate of the business project. In 1973, car enthusiast John DeLorean left conservative General Motors in order to start his own automobile business. However, the new DeLorean Motor Company only released one model. This is the DMC-12, a sports car with a body made of stainless steel and opening doors in the style of a bird's wings. Sales of the innovative model began in 1981, but after a couple of years the company declared itself bankrupt. During this time, she managed to produce only 9 thousand of these machines. And the world fame came to the brand with the fantastic film "Back to the Future". It was DMC-12 that became the basis for the conversion of a strange scientist-inventor into a time machine.
Breakfast mates by Kellogg. Breakfast cereal maker Kellogg decided to use a fairly simple idea. What if you immediately mix the cereal with milk by adding a spoon to the set? It seems that you will immediately get tasty healthy food, immediately ready to eat. However, the manufacturer did not take into account a couple of points. It turned out that retailers don't store breakfast cereals in refrigerators. As a result, the milk in the kit will be warm. Who likes to drink warm milk flakes? And the advertisement promised that while the parents were sleeping, the children could prepare their own breakfast. But the Breakfast mates packaging was not supposed to be opened by children.
Pepsi AM. This famous manufacturer of soft drinks tried to change the morning diet of consumers. In the 1980s, Pepsi decided that people would enjoy starting their morning with a can of its soda. After all, it still contains the same caffeine, therefore, a replacement for boring coffee has been found! However, the Pepsi AM product was a deafening failure in sales. Marketers have identified a potential segment among the target audience. After all, young people often do not have time for a potential breakfast in the morning, so a new soda was invented for them. True, not much research has been carried out; assumptions have taken their places. In the end, the company took its traditional drink, kept the same sugar content, but increased the volume of caffeine. Unwittingly, Pepsi invaded the rather competitive energy market. And for those who are used to drinking soda in the morning, regular soda was quite suitable. As a result, there was virtually no need for a new product, and it turned out to be an expensive pleasure to explain to people why they need a new drink. And by calling the soda "morning" the company actually limited its use for the rest of the day, cutting the market with its own hands.
Crystal Pepsi. A similar fate awaited the clear Crystal Pepsi cola. People are so used to the brown color of the drink that they simply refused to drink it discolored. In the early 1990s, the trend of purity and naturalness dominated. Pepsi has decided to enter the race with a decaf cola. The drink was deliberately made transparent to emphasize cleanliness. In addition, the first tests were successful, and in 1993 the "crystal" drink went on sale throughout America. The launch of the new product was supported by the entire Pepsi advertising colossus. Even during the finals of the American football championship, there was a video with the slogan "You've never seen this taste." Sales of the drink grew rapidly. But with the end of the advertising campaign, people stopped buying the new drink.As a result, the new product was able to conquer only 1% of the market, after which its production was curtailed.
Frito lay lemonade. The renowned chip maker Frito lay, which owns the Lays and Rito brands, has decided to launch a new product. Marketers figured that salty potato slices would make people thirsty. That is why, under the already well-known brand, lemonade was released, designed to quench thirst. Only here the name of the company was associated with a product among consumers that still causes thirst, and does not satisfy it. Customers saw no connection between a sweet drink and a salty snack.
Bottled water for pets. Of course, people sometimes love to pamper their favorites. Clothing lines for dogs and cats are produced, they are served by hairdressers. Marketers decided that people would even buy bottled water for their pets. However, this idea did not work, maybe the pets were simply not ready to drink purified water?
DuPont artificial leather. The famous company was founded in the 18th century. In the 1960s, she began promoting Corfam, an artificial leather substitute. DuPont felt that leatherette would be great for making women's shoes. However, the manufacturer missed one important detail - comfort. Although the material really turned out to be cheap, it still could not compete with genuine leather, because it is simply softer. And the manufacturers of shoes made from natural materials, fearing competition from a new product, began to improve quality and reduce prices. As a result, the seemingly innovative DuPont project was buried.
Aspirin Ben-Gay. Ben-Gay is a fairly well-known brand in America. Under this name, the famous ointment is sold, which allows you to relieve pain in the joints, back and arthritis. When the company decided to expand its range, it resorted to the release of a particularly strong ointment. This product was a success. Influenced by the dizziness of the success, the leadership went on and released Ben-Gay Aspirin. It was believed that the pills could be distributed through an already existing distribution network, and the brand itself was already associated with pain relief. However, Ben-Gay was perceived exclusively by consumers as a burning ointment. Such a name was simply not suitable for another product. People refused to swallow what they thought was unpleasant Ben-Gay. As a result, the new aspirin was not in demand.
Ready coffee Maxwell House. The company offered a great way to experience instant coffee. The buyer was asked to purchase a mug of coffee already poured into a bag. Only it was impossible to heat such a product in the microwave - it still had to be poured into a cup. So people never got any ready-made coffee. Consumers preferred to pour the natural beverage from the coffee machine into the cup. Surprisingly, Maxwell did not take advantage of the idea of offering iced coffee. Apparently, they were afraid to launch such a drink, because who wants to buy it in winter? As a result, the consumer was offered a product convenient only in terms of ideology, without making its preparation really that way.
McDonald's Arch deluxe. This fast food chain is constantly trying to diversify its menu. This is how the new Arch delux burger was developed for an adult audience. Introduced in 1996, this product featured a new, more complex flavor specifically for adults. In the commercials, there were children who refused such a product. However, the McDonalds audience was not expecting anything difficult, they only needed convenience. It consisted precisely in the fact that buyers always knew what to expect from the company's products. It was also a mistake to focus on the taste of the new burger. This is not what restaurants are valued for, as the sales of new products have confirmed. In addition, critics lashed out at McDonald’s for losing touch with the consumer.
Sony Betamax VCR. Betamax VCRs first hit the market in 1975. Another VHS-based device was presented a little earlier. By 1977, the VHS format was already supported by four companies that released their devices based on it. Sony's high quality in the case of Betamax meant recording video to cassette for only an hour of broadcast. But this was not enough, more VHS tapes could fit, although the quality was slightly worse. The question arose about which format to support. Sony stubbornly adhered to its own design, but already in 1987, VHS captured 95% of the market. It became clear that the war was lost. In 1988, Sony announced the launch of a line of VHS video recorders. Betamax sales failed not only because of the inconvenience for the user (they had to constantly change cassettes), but also because the license for the technology was not transferred to anyone else. Whereas JVC, the producer of VHS, shared its secrets. As a result, in 2002, Sony officially announced the discontinuation of Betamax products, and a new, digital era came.
Ford Edsel. This story of failure is already considered a classic. The failure of this car became the history of the "Titanic" for Ford, significantly influencing his fate. The car was shown and advertised throughout 1957, but not particularly showing its insides. As a result, as it was calculated by the manufacturer, the public became very interested in the novelty. The company planned to sell about 200 thousand cars in a year, having won 5% of the entire market in one fell swoop. However, the car simply did not match the advertising flow that surrounded it. As a result, only 64 thousand cars were sold in the first year. The bad publicity was to blame. People saw all the flaws, moreover, the car received a stupid name associated with "marten" and a terrible appearance. The front bumper looked like a toilet lid. In addition, a bad launch time was chosen for the product - at that moment the Americans were just starting to switch to cheaper models. As a result, Ford simply didn’t know the market well enough, relying on its own strength and powerful advertising.
Ford Pinto. Another major mistake Ford made was to make the car a household name. This machine was introduced to the market in 1971. However, it turned out that in the pursuit of profit, the manufacturer neglected safety. So, the design of the fuel tank turned out to be unsuccessful, in the event of an accident it could easily break through, which could lead to fuel leakage and fire. The Pinto was nicknamed “a barbecue for four,” as the doors were easily deformed when struck from behind, leaving passengers hostage who were about to fry themselves due to problems with the gas tank. The design of the suspension and brakes turned out to be wrong. In 1977, journalists wrote that the manufacturer was aware of the problems, deciding that it would be cheaper to pay for death claims than to withdraw the entire line. As a result, the car entered the ratings from various magazines as the ugliest and worst car.
New Coke. In the late 1970s, the Coca-Cola Company found several strong competitors around it, also offering consumers soft drinks. Besides, Pepsi behaved very aggressively, which involved youth idols in its advertising, conducted "blind" tests. People increasingly opted for the sweeter flavor of the competitor. To maintain its leadership in the market, the giant decided to take a bold step - to abandon its classic product altogether and switch to New Coke. The chemists produced such a taste, which in the test groups outperformed not only the classic Coke, but also the competitors. In 1985, New Coke was officially introduced. The production of the same old drink was stopped. The company spent millions on advertising and distribution and waited for results. However, Coca Cola underestimated the emotional connection of consumers with the time-tested beverage. Marketing failure has become the most famous in history. People even went to demonstrations, demanding to return to them the old taste, the personification of America. As a result, New Coke did not last even three months, the project was quickly canceled. The Coca Cola Company has for years instilled in consumers the knowledge that their drink is part of the national culture, so it was a big mistake to revolutionize and completely abandon it.
Ayds. This product was supposed to help reduce appetite. The sweets were produced with the taste of chocolate and caramel, mint and other flavors. The main ingredient was benzocaine, which is often used as a local anesthetic. Advertising made the product popular in the late 1970s and early 1980s. However, the emergence in Africa of the AIDS epidemic, whose name has become consonant with the name of the candy, has rapidly reduced sales. People did not want to have anything to do with a dangerous disease.
Gerber Singles. This is the very case when branding has become nonsense. The Gerber company specialized in the production of baby food. In an attempt to enter new, more serious markets, the Gerber Singles product was launched. The firm has chosen a very unusual path - the production of small portions of food for the elderly. Fruits, desserts, snacks were placed in the same jars as for babies. The line was launched in 1974, but it soon became clear that the food from the baby food cans did not match the people's idea of a pleasant evening. And the product name "Gerber for Single People" did not help sales. The company's marketers forgot to put themselves in the shoes of their customers - did they want to buy food for singles and eat from jars?