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To find out the secret of the life and functioning of various human systems, doctors sometimes embark on terrible experiments. History has left us the names of the most famous doctors, whose experiments arouse not so much scientific interest as horror and awe.
Vladimir Demikhov and his two-headed dogs. In 1954, Soviet surgeon Vladimir Demikhov revealed to the world the result of his next experiment - a two-headed dog. A puppy's head and two front legs were transplanted onto the neck of an adult German Shepherd. Both heads played, breathed, strove to bite each other and drank milk. Although both dogs died soon due to tissue rejection, over the next fifteen years of his work, Demikhov created 19 more such monsters. Their maximum life span was one month. However, Demikhov did not produce only monsters, the main goal of his research was the transplantation of human organs. It was the Soviet doctor who created the foundation for subsequent successful transplant operations. Demikhov was the first to write a fundamental work on organ transplantation, for which he received a doctorate. In 1962, his "Experimental Transplantation of Vital Organs" was published in New York, Madrid and Berlin for a long time becoming the only work covering tissue and organ transplantation. The fame of the doctor who was the first to transplant a human heart went to Christian Barnard in 1967. However, he twice visited Demikhov's laboratory, considering that his teacher.
A doctor who drinks vomit. Stubbins Firff, a British medical student, has entered his name into the history of science in a very unusual way. He conducted a whole series of pointless experiments to study yellow fever. Stubbins believed the disease was not contagious at all. The physician analyzed the fall in the incidence in winter and came to the conclusion that it was caused only by the heat and stress caused by the heat. In fact, really yellow fever appears more often in the summer, yet his other assumptions turned out to be erroneous. Only 60 years after the death of FIFA, Cuban Carlos Fangi discovered that mosquitoes carried fever. In the history of America, the worst epidemic of this disease happened in 1793, then 5 thousand people died in Philadelphia, which made up 10% of the urban population. These events prompted Firth to enter the University of Pennsylvania in order to defeat the disease that hit his native places so hard. Stubbins first suggested that fever was not contagious. To prove his theory, he decided to conduct experiments on himself. To do this, Firff decided to directly contact with fluids collected from the bodies of sick people. As a result, crazy experiments were carried out - the vomiting of the patients was rubbed into the incisions on the body, buried in the eyes. Further more. Firf was frying vomit in a pan and breathing in the steam. To finally shame the skeptics, the student also began to drink vomit. Having gone into a rage, the doctor decided to prove that he would not be harmed by other bodily fluids. He began to perform the same procedures with urine, saliva and blood. All these experiments did not lead to infection of the doctor with a fever, which he considered proof of his theory. Only years later it turned out that the physician took samples from patients when they were already at a late stage of the disease. At this time, the fluids were no longer contagious. So the crazy experiments were in vain. And fever is very contagious, but for the transmission of infection, the blood must contact directly, which is facilitated by mosquitoes.
Josef Mengele is a mortal angel. Mengele served as an officer in the SS forces, working as a doctor in the fascist concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. In history, the medic received a notoriety for controlling the selection of prisoners for his subsequent experiments on them. For his experiments on people, Mengele received the nickname "Angel of Death". In 1940, the doctor ended up in the medical corps, where until 1942 he served in the SS Viking division. After being wounded in Russia, Mengele was declared unfit for further regular service, received the rank of captain and went to serve in a concentration camp. The doctor's 21-month stay there made him one of the most wanted fascist criminals. Such fame was brought to Mengele by his experiments on prisoners. His other nickname, "White Angel", he received when he selected people. Towering over the platform in his white cloak, the doctor waved his arms, identifying some to the left and others to the right. Some prisoners went to cruel experiments, while others went straight to the gas chambers. The story goes that somehow Mengele drew a line in the children's block at a height of one and a half meters, and sent those who were below it to death. The doctor conducted very cruel experiments on people. For children, he tried to change the color of the eyes, for which he introduced various chemicals there. Mengele often amputated limbs; experiments on girls included sterilization and electric shocks. It is not surprising that most of the victims of the experiments did not endure the experiments, dying either directly from them or from the infections brought in. One night, Mengele placed 14 pairs of Romanian twins on his marble table. When the doctor put them to sleep, he methodically killed them by injecting chloroform directly into the heart. After that, the doctor began to dismember the bodies, examining each piece. The twin studies at Auschwitz were generally Mengele's favorite subjects. At one point, he even tried to create a Siamese twin by stitching two gypsy children together. However, an infection got into the places of their connection on the hands, which led to gangrene.
Johann Konrad Dippel - Dr. Frankenstein. This doctor was born in Frankenstein Castle, near Darmstadt. This allowed the scientist to add the adjective Frankenstein to his last name. Dippel studied at the University of Giessen, where he learned not only philosophy and theology, but also alchemy. There he received his master's degree in 1693. Since then, the scientist has published his theological works many times under the pseudonym Christian Democritus, many of them have come down to us. It is said that during his stay in the ancestral castle, Dippel was engaged in gruesome experiences that included alchemy and anatomy. Although nitroglycerin was not discovered then, it is believed that it was the experiments with it that led to the destruction of the scientist's tower. True, in the history of the castle there is nothing about any explosions in those days. Most likely, these myths appeared later. Locals warned that Dippel conducted terrible experiments with corpses, trying to transfer the soul from one to another. According to legend, when the townspeople learned about these studies, they expelled the scientist from their lands. It was Dippel who became the prototype of Mary Shelley's famous novel about Frankenstein.
Giovanni Aldini and his electric dances. The name of this scientist is not so well known, but the whole world knows his uncle - Luigi Galvani. It was this Italian professor of anatomy who discovered galvanism. Experiments on a dead frog helped him in this. When Galvani passed a current through her, her limbs twitched. But Aldini went much further in his experiments than his uncle - he began to use human corpses. The experience on the body of the executed murderer, George Forster, was presented to the general public. The doctor connected electrodes to his body, turned on the current. The dead man began to do terrifying dances, his left eye opening slightly, as if he wanted to look at the tormentor. This spectacle frightened the audience, some thought that the dead could really come to life. One spectator was so shocked that he died immediately after the performance. Here is how Aldini's experiments were described by a contemporary: “The dead man developed a heavy convulsive breathing, his eyes were opened again, and his lips moved. The killer's face no longer obeyed any controlling instinct, it began to make strange faces. This led to a loss of consciousness in one of the assistants, who then for several days could not recover. " It is believed that Aldini's activities and his spectacular performances of passing current through corpses made him one of the prototypes of the already mentioned Frankenstein.
Sergey Bryukhonenko and his living head. This Soviet scientist worked during the Stalin era. Bryukhonenko's research became very important for further open-heart surgery. The physician became the head of the Research Institute of Experimental Surgery, where later in 1957 such an operation was performed for the first time. Bryukhonenko is known for his main discovery - an artificial blood supply apparatus (auto-light). It allowed replacing the heart and lungs in a primitive form, carrying out their functions. The apparatus was used with varying degrees of success during experiments on dogs in the 1930s. A documentary film "Experiments on the revitalization of organisms" was even made about this. During the experiments, the head of the dog was separated from the body, supporting its life with the help of an auto-light. Now the truth of the removed procedures is being questioned, but the experiments themselves were well documented. To prove that the dog's head was alive on the table, the doctor showed her reaction to external stimuli. She reacted to the blows on the table and even ate - a piece of cheese slipped out through the food tube. These experiments became an important stage in the history of medicine, because the possibility of creating an artificial heart and organ transplantation, revitalizing a person after clinical death was proved.
Andrew Ure, a butcher from Scotland. Although the Scottish physician has numerous other accomplishments, four experiments on the corpse of Matthew Clydesdale brought him fame. It happened on November 4, 1818. First, the doctor cut the back of the deceased's head and removed part of the vertebra. An incision was then made in the heel and left thigh. Two electrodes were connected to the neck and thigh, and an electric current was sent through them. This caused severe convulsions beyond the control of anyone. When the current was sent to the heel, the leg hit the assistant hard. Another assistant made the deceased's diaphragm contract, imitating breathing. Upon receiving the executed Clydesdale, Ure found that his blood was not clotted, and the neck of his hanging did not break. The doctor decided to bring the deceased back to life with electricity. The third experiment demonstrated facial expressions. Yur made an incision on the deceased's forehead. When contacts were connected to the face, Clydesdale began to demonstrate various emotions - fear, anger, longing and despair, as a result, a distorted smile appeared there. This spectacle shocked the audience so much that one doctor even chose to leave the place of the terrible experiment. The last experience assumed the complete revival of the dead. Another incision was made on the index finger. As soon as the current was turned on, the dead man raised his hand and pointed to the audience. Many of them were horrified.
Shiro Ishii, Doctor Evil. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Ishii served as Lieutenant General of the Special Military Biological Unit of the Imperial Japanese Army. But his main vocation was microbiology. Shiro studied medicine at Kyoto University. In 1932, it was he who stood at the head of secret experiments for the Japanese army. In 1931, a special unit 731 was created for this purpose. Not far from Chinese Harbin, a whole city of 150 buildings with a total area of 6 square kilometers was built. Ishii performed vivisection of living people, including pregnant women fertilized by his own doctors. The inmates had their limbs amputated and attempts were made to swap the severed parts. To understand how gangrene proceeds, the bodies were frozen to the prisoners, and then they were heated to normal. The effects of flamethrowers and grenades were tested on living people. The prisoners were infected with various infections and diseases, studying their effect on the body. To understand how advanced venereal diseases affect people, prisoners were forcibly infected with gonorrhea and syphilis. However, Shiro Ishii managed to escape punishment - the American Peacekeeping Army guaranteed immunity to the monster doctor. As a result, he never ended up in jail, having lived to 67 years old and died from throat cancer.
Kevin Warwick, who became the first human cyborg. No one doubts that in the near future there will be cyborgs among us. Meanwhile, the first human robot has already appeared. It was Kevin Warwick. This English professor of cybernetics became so involved in the study of cyborgs that he decided to become one of them. In 1998, he implanted a primitive transmitter under his skin. With his help, the scientist learned to control the operation of heaters, lamps, doors and other similar devices. The experiment was based on the study of human susceptibility, the scientist wanted to understand how easy it is to control such a chip. In 2002, a more sophisticated neural device was introduced into Warwick's nervous system. Now it had access to the host's nerve impulses. The experiment turned out to be quite successful, now Warwick could mentally be controlled by a mechanical manipulator arm. A little later, another highly publicized experiment took place. Special chips were implanted into the body of the scientist and his wife. Thanks to them, the effect of telepathy or empathy was supposed to be created. To transmit signals remotely between devices, the Internet was used. And this experience ended successfully - for the first time in the history of medicine, an exclusively electronic connection was established between the nervous systems of two people distant from each other. Warwick continues his research related to cybernetics.
John Lilly and his touch camera. This scientist decided to test what would happen if the brain was cut off from all external stimuli - sound and light. For this in 1954, Lilly came up with a special pressure chamber. This dark, soundproof tank held dense and warm salt water, filling it to a quarter. This made it possible for a person to neutralize the force of gravity, giving a feeling of weightlessness. The subjects could swim there for a long time in a state of complete isolation. John Lilly himself was the first to try the action on the camera. For an hour he was cut off from the world, experiencing vivid fantasies. He refused to talk about them, calling them too personal. The scientist came to the conclusion that within us there is a certain scheme that can control consciousness. We ourselves can instill fear or joy in ourselves, regardless of the external environment. Subjects' hallucinations were difficult to study scientifically. That is why research has not been continued. But in 1972, Lilly founded his own company "SamadhiTank", which began to produce similar containers for home use. These experiments themselves led the scientist to the question of the brain of large intelligent mammals, in particular, a dolphin. In 1980, Lilly's work served as the basis for the film Altered States. As a result, the eccentric scientist became a kind of guru, having died in 2001 at the age of 86.